International Economics & Politics:
by Javed Ahmad
"O mankind! We created you From a single (pair) of a Male and a female, And made you into Nations and Tribes, That ye may know each other (Not that ye may despise each other). Verily, the most honored of you In the sight of God is (He who is) the most righteous of you .And God has full knowledge And is well acquainted (With all things)"(Holy Qur'an 49:13).
The concept of `One World, One Humanity' is laid down here. And its still a dream to come true. Presently, a trend is showing a movement of this sense towards reality. And this is what my this paper is all about.
`International Economics' or `World Economy' is the base of the this paper. Where we discuss issues like political systems of different countries and their resources, international trading and financial systems, pollution and environment, population, etc. Being interested in international issues, particularly in `globalism', I took a course on Economics (Winter semester 1990) to understand and think better. And this research work is a result of that course work. I enjoyed the program and learned a great deal form the lectures of our professor Dr. Joel C. Millonzi of LaGuardia Community College of the City University of New York, and from class discussions, which were very informative and straight forward. In one of our classes we discussed about the pollution & environmental issues where our professor explained the matter with a very simple but interesting example; one time during his lecture he said,"...right at this moment we are breathing each others air in this class room". This example boldly referred to our bindings in `global effects'.
TRUTH vs. PREJUDICE:
Under globalism, `the world is the market'. We really don't have a concrete plan for `globalism' yet; and that is the only reason why it has still remained a `dream' of many people. In one of our classes, while discussing about `exchange rates, international balances, and international finance', at one point we all agreed that in order to achieve `equality among the nations' and for a `peaceful balance', we must have a single global currency system. Which also means that we must have a single government or `world council of independent states'. "...the next major phase in the development of international economic policy, when it occurs, is unlikely to be built on the ideas and blueprints of an innovative leader. Instead, it is likely to be conceived and developed by a number of nations, reflecting a melange of national experiences and ideologies.... A capacity for listening and learning has still to be developed" (Vernon & Spar 210).
"I want to live, free and happy, in a free and happy world. Such a world will not come about unless we act to bring it about...but the world is still divided into 150 sovereign states, each one with its laws, its soldiers, its ministers, its civil servants, and most with their own language....Neither hunger nor overcrowding is a global problem this planet can easily support many times its present population, and we huddle together by choice not compulsion. To have this brought home all one has to do is fly round the world and look out for the window....We know more about mankind's achievements in space than about where the food on our plates comes from; we are dimly aware that we are now utterly dependent on someone somewhere pushing the right buttons....We panic, and are prepared to do almost anything, stand on our head, sing a song, pull a face, lie, kill, beg, when we suddenly realize that the hand has forgotten us....The debate about the American investment in space travel, its extent and whether it should take priority over spending on poverty programs, is silly because the United States could, if she wanted, eliminate poverty within five years. It is not a question of priority but a question of inclusion and exclusion, just as the task of raising the standard of living in under developed countries to that of the developed countries is not a task but a matter of admitting them to the club. The sooner we accept this the better for us all. To make the Asians, South Americans and Africans rich will make us richer still under no condition: complete integration into a worldwide, not a regional economic system. Those chairmen of global companies I talked to all know this, and yet even they do nothing positive, as if such a state of affairs could only be brought about by divine intervention. They say, `What can I, one man, do about it?' To which I reply `Speak out and tell the truth'. Why, oh why, does courage fail them so ? Because they would have if they are not to betray their own intelligence ( as they consistently do ) to end by saying, if we are to survive a worldwide revolution will have to take place, and the time for it is now"(Tempel 8-11).
A BOLD ATTEMPT:
Truth must prevail. And indeed, the task is not easy, and is also full of risks. Lyndon LaRouche is the only man I have come to know who took some bold steps to establish this truth. Thus, landed into conspiracy, and now a political prisoner in the United States. "The Kissenger prompted "Get LaRouche" strike force of 1984-9 was not the first attempt by the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) or Kissenger to harass, and to attempt to silence LaRouche and his associates....The charges against LaRouche and his co defendants were typical of the way in which those in power often misuse judicial process for silencing and destroying a political critic....As Senator Robert Dole said, in July 1987, after hearing that LaRouche had been charged with conspiracy, "That's what they do when they can't get you on anything else.""(Railroad xi xiii).
What was the purpose of this frame up ? What did LaRouche really wanted ? "LaRouche was among the first to organize preemptive campaign dedicated to exposing the "post industrial society" utopianism as a mass murderous, anti scientific hoax. Closer to the bankers' and brokers' cash box, was the central theme of LaRouche's work over the period 1966 to date: Reorganize the international monetary system, and "Third World" debt structures, to unleash the potential for technologically progressive, capital intensive increase of physical productivity per capita, through agriculture, manufacturing, and infrastructure ,investments.... During 1974-6, LaRouche and his friends had begun to emerge as a significant intellectual factor globally on the interrelated issues of economic development and general monetary reform....By 1974-5, among the leading international financial centers of New York, London, Paris, Basel, Zurich, Geneva, Frankfurt, Hamburg, and so on, the sudden prominence of LaRouche and his associates was acknowledged with amusement and curiosity at first, and savage hatred later....During that campaign, LaRouche stressed that the present IMF system was decaying in the direction of a major, international debt crisis down the line not many years ahead. He argued that equitable form of reorganization of the international monetary system were needed as a matter of human rights of developing nations. He stressed that expanding the capital intensive economic growth of the developing nations was in the direct and vital interest of US farmers, industrial entrepreneurs, and wage earners generally....LaRouche echoed President Franklin Roosevelt when he stressed, in that broadcast, that the economic and monetary policies of a Trilateral Jimmy Carter would destabilize the world's economic, social, and political structure to the effect of making a nuclear tipped new world war increasingly likely down the road. He stressed, as Roosevelt had, and the Pope, too, that economic justice for the Third World, is the road to world peace. Meanwhile, at the Colombo, Sri Lanka conference of August 1976, the same proposals for monetary reform circulated world wide by LaRouche were adopted within the final resolution of those representatives of the majority of nations of this planet. The major news media, to this day, as then, have never come close to telling the truth of LaRouche's 1976 presidential campaign. In 1980, 1984, and 1988, LaRouche campaigned as a major candidate for the U.S.presidential nomination of the Democratic Party. The core issue of these Democratic campaigns was the same as in the 1976 U.S. Labor Party campaign: international monetary reform, to control the worsening debt crisis, to foster human rights of developing nations, to foster economic growth through scientific and technological progress as the lever for durable peace through out the world, and to defend the security of western civilization....LaRouche wrote and issued many printed policy studies in depth, including two full length books. It is fair to say that LaRouche supplied for more than half the thought out policy contributed by all major candidates combined"(Railroad xxvii xxxix).
"Economics has always been the backbone of politics, and economic action on the scale of global companies cannot take place outside politics. The `politification' of economics and the domination of politics by economic consideration has rapidly increased during the last decade, the Russian revolution was a predominantly economic event, and greed is the driving force of almost every empire. The shutting and opening of supply valves is one of the oldest means of government and the exercise of power, they are the way the animal trainer in the circus rewards and punishes....The governments of countries like Germany, Great Britain, France, Italy, Japan and of course the USA, no longer know how to supply their people without the great companies and this is true of leftish governments as rightish ones" (Tempel 126 7). Thus the international conspiracy continues.
INFLUENCE OF THE UNITED STATES:
"The US foreign aid program was launched in the same era and motivated by the same spirit that produced the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the International Trade Organization (ITO). It grew from the minds of a small core of like minded bureaucrats conditioned by the Great Depression and World War II, men and women convinced that the United States had to seize the initiative in shaping a peaceful postwar order and that the means most suited to this task were primarily economic....By the 1980's, the security motive in U.S. foreign aid policy was unmistakably in the pattern of aid allocation, with the largest percentage of funds flowing to countries perceived as capable of giving the United States some strategic return, such as base rights or access to critical waterways....Strategic consideration were given top billing, while humanitarian objectives and economic development formed a smaller part of the appeal....In 1951, Congress passed the Mutual Security Act, a bill explicitly linking U.S. aid policies to U.S. securities policies and placing the administration of federal aid activities in a single agency....all European recipients had to agree to fulfill shared military obligations to the fullest extent possible....In Europe, its provisions were seen as redundant, since most nations had already signed similar assurances under the newly created North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). In the less developed regions, certain recipients of technical aid worried that their agreement might imply a rejection of neutrality and a commitment to the U.S. side in an increasingly bipolar world"(Vernon & Spar 141 50). Gradually, through the use of foreign aid policy and heavy investment in military, United States became a strong military power with strong strategic holds, and also with a burden of huge financial debt as a result. On the other hand, Europe and Japan became the financial powers. In order to become a military superpower, US created foes, whereas Europe and Japan developed trust and friendship with other nations of the world.
WAR THE ULTIMATE POWER GAME:
Due to the blind support of the United States towards Israel (which is mainly due to the Israel supporting strong jewish lobby in the US political arena), many mid eastern countries opposed US's role in the middle east affairs. After conflict with Libya and Iran, US went to war with Iraq. Although Iraq was a regional power in the middle east, but was not at all a match for the United States alone. US always balanced the competition of arms race with the Soviet Union ( When this paper was written, the Cold War was still going on), whereas Iraq equipped its armed forces mostly by purchasing weapons from the Soviets. On the other hand, the country which couldn't win a war with Iran (which is considered weaker in power compared to Iraq), how could it possibly stand against the US and allied nations combined ? As far as I am concerned, Iraq did not expect the war to happen. US knew very well that Iraq no matter what it had was no match for him. Then why war ? Iraq invaded Kuwait, because it needed more revenues to cover its economical deficit and military spending (perhaps to become more stronger which US understood). And US in order to protect Israel, saw Iraq as a threat in the region. Thus being the father of Israel, it had to interfere to make sure that Iraq's military and economical strengths are completely destroyed. Then why such a long term bombing over Iraq and Kuwait ? Not only to weaken the Iraqi forces, but also to destroy the cities and oil fields there, so that after the war US could get the 'billion dollar business' of re- construction, which will eventually revive the deficit driven economy of the United States. Just as Secretary of State James Baker said,"We are there to protect jobs". In a later date, he also said,"We will rebuild Iraq and Kuwait". Iraq's call for holy war (as did Khomeini of Iran), and linking the invasion of Kuwait to Palestinian issues; and on the other hand, US's military build up to protect Saudi Arabia and gulf oil, and later to liberate Kuwait, was nothing but a set up to cover their original intentions. And what about Soviet Union ? USSR and US never interfered in each others imperialistic endeavors. They are the partners of `destroy and re-construct' business around the world. Besides, this time the case being more serious than any other cases dealt before, US has silenced USSR by its old practiced `foreign aid' policies, and by staying away from its internal affairs. In return USSR would also remain silent about this `gulf war' affair. Regarding this war, one of my friends recently made an interesting remark, he said,"US and Israel will put those dumb arabs back to the back of the camels, unless they wake up". Those arabs needed a shake up and I hope they got what they deserved.
THIRD WORLD VICTIMS OF CONSPIRACY:
`Bungladesh' (I prefer to spell this way as it gives the correct pronunciation) is an example of the third world nations. Being coming from Bungladesh, I would like to talk about this country in order to discuss the situation there. After all I lived there for 25 years!
"The name `Bungladesh' means the land, or home, of Bungalees, those whose mother tongue is Bungla( or Bangali) and who are only truly at home in a Bungalee cultural milieu. Bungladesh has a rich historical and cultural past. The geographic region of East Bengal has been a racial and religious melting pot for successive influxes of disparate people Dravidians, Aryans, Mongolians, Arabs, Persians and Turks" (Brown). "The history of Bengal, particularly in the form of legends and folk beliefs, includes the recurring themes of the exploitation of the land and the people by alien rulers and of steadfast and often violent Bengali resistance. During the decline of the Mughols in the 18th century, the British East India Company became one of the several ruling powers in Bengal, the British rule on the Indian subcontinent began there, after the company army defeated a Mughol army in the Battle of Palassey in 1757....Through the vehicle of the British East India Company, British traders ravaged the land, and British governors committed colossal....The greatest disaster that has befallen the subcontinent since the partition in 1947 was the brutality connected with the revolt of East Pakistan which broke out on March 26, 1971...and resulted in the birth of Bungladesh....From the time of the creation of Pakistan the two wings had been in recurring rivalry with each other for practical dominance of the nation, with the West consistently the winner. The Bengalis of East Pakistan observed that West Pakistanis controlled the government, the military, the civil service, industry and commerce. The East Pakistanis responded to this domination with agitation for provincial and cultural autonomy. When it became clear that the people of East Pakistan were deeply disturbed by the issues involved and were giving their discontent overwhelming expressions at the polls, the government of Pakistan, which was located in West Pakistan and had the Pakistani army under control, set out to crush the dissidence and terrorism. The method failed. After eight months of guerrilla warfare between Bengali insurgent forces the most important of which was the Mukti Bahini (meaning the Freedom Fighters) and the Pakistan armed forces, India entered the war. On December 16, 1971, now National or Victory Day in Bungladesh, the Pakistan military commander in Dhaka surrendered to the commander of the Indian invasion force"(Nyrop).
The purpose of my quoting the above information is not to force the reader to know what really happened, but to make some points. Today's bungalees are a mixed race. Bengal thus India was a melting pot of human races from all over the world, like the United States today. Not only immigrants, but also rulers were attracted to rule over the land and the people. Sometimes by force, sometimes by conspiracy. The British East India Company went to India mainly with economical objectives, but slowly they took advantage of the hospitality and trust of the rulers, and simplicity of the people to establish their rule on that land. And it was achieved by betrayal and conspiracy. And ruled India for about 200 years. Later East Pakistan being more resourceful, West Pakistan exploited the East, by depriving from its share, and ignoring its rights. And the result was separation. During liberation war period, the Bungladesh government in exile (in India) agreed upon some secret deals with Indian government in order to liberate the land. As planned, India helped militarily to liberate Bungladesh and took away most of the surrendered weapons of Pakistani armies plus other resources ( mostly industrial machineries and equipments) during their withdrawal of forces. India always wanted to divide the two winged Pakistan to weaken its strong military advantages. Finally they succeeded, along with huge resources; what a gain !
`Bungladesh' - one of the most innocent nations of the world. Not a single record of invasion is found in the history of bengal. Some may point out that it never invaded because it was always militarily weak! Well, to answer that, let me remind you that even Alexander the great had to change his mind of conquering Bengal when he faced the huge elephants with well equipped soldiers lined across the bank of river Gonga(the Ganges). Civilized people live in peace with neighbors, they never invade.
Among all the leaders Bungladesh had so far, Late President Ziaur Rahman was outstanding (who was also a freedom fighter during liberation war). He sincerely tried to improve the situations in Bungladesh. He understood that his country do not have enough economic resources to choose isolation. Therefore, he concentrated in international co-operation. He tried his level best to see a positive outcome. He ran from one country to another, only to discover one truth,"No nation wants to see Bungladesh prosper", he said in his last speech. Few days later, after his utterance of these words (in 1981) he was assassinated. And it is believed that CIA was behind this. Bungladesh lost a great leader. The whole nation mourned his death. Now his wife Khaleda Zia is making a comeback in the political power; let's see what type of leadership she has to offer. The idea of South Asian Regional Co-operation (SARC) originally came from Zia. Later implemented by the subsequent leader as South Asian Association for Regional Co- operation (SAARC), turning the brilliant concept into a cultural inter-nation club. Another project which was originally thought out by Zia was the `Grameen Bank'(meaning the Rural Bank). This is one of the successful projects in operation in Bungladesh today. Recently, the Small Business Association of the United States is considering a similar program in US. "The Bush administration plans to give poor people an entrepreneurial boost....It would be the first SBA program specifically designed to help the poor become business owners....Modeled in part after a peer group lending program used by the Grameen Bank of Bungladesh..."(SBA).
Population of Bungladesh is now exceeding 110 million, and now facing various problems due to over population. Paul Ehrlich, a Stanford University biologist, who wrote ""The Population Bomb", raised the prospect of mass starvation by the end of the century as too many people tried to subsist on too little land. "The Limits of Growth", a 1973 report from the Club of Rome, a group of business leaders and academics, forecast a more general hard landing as the world ran out of resources....By the same token, Mr. Bloom rejects Julian Simon's broad brush claims for economies of scale in poor countries. There may be circumstances in which high population density makes it easier to develop local markets for industry or to support an efficient transport system. "But wouldn't Bungladesh be better off with five million fewer people ?",he asks. The answer is certainly yes""(Population).
"World population, now about 5.2 billion, is headed for 10 billion by 2025,...Among those searching for ways to slow global warming, population growth is a preoccupation....Earth's atmosphere would soon be wiped out as world population doubles over the next 35 years....The average American, he said causes "a hundred times" more damage to the global environment than a person in a poor country,"because we're such profligate users of resources". From this perspective, he(Paul Ehrlich) said,"the biggest population problem is in the industrialized world"" (Boom). It is really amazing to see how factors are inter related to each other. Problems of Bungladesh and problems of the US might as well affect each other in a great deal. For instance, the `global warming' affair is due to air pollution (increase of carbon dioxide gases in atmosphere), and free entrance of ultra violet sun rays through the holes in ozone layers created by the nuclear testings (one of the major causes) of the so called civilized superior nations, is causing melting of ice of the poles; which will eventually give rise in sea level water and will result in disappearance of some countries under water. Unfortunately, Bungladesh happens to be one of such nations which will soon become a history like the `Atlantis' if nothing is done. Thus the third world countries pays the price for ignorance, pride, prejudice, experimentation, and foolishness of the `sophisticated' nations in the west.
These issues indicates us at one ultimate truth,`we are no longer limited to national boundaries, we are the citizens of the world'. "We have to learn to accept two things. First, that this planet belongs to all of us and we all of us must accept the responsibility of its care. Secondly, we (the chairmen and the Greek women) must learn once more to see human life as an entity. The one has to integrate the other into his or her life, not as a number or a factor but as something alive, part of life" (Tempel 126). Time has come when we must open our eyes and ears, and face the reality of life and events. All the nations of the world are ultimately heading towards the same destiny. What ever resources we have left in this world, must be used properly, intelligently, justly to keep peace among nations and respect to each other. `Economical Geography' should not be a secret governmental concern anymore, it should be an international concern. And how this `peace treaty' can be achieved ? We have to sit together with sincerity and affection and discuss the matters freely and openly. We have to re-organize the United Nations Organization giving equal power and right to every nations of the world no matter how weak, poor, small a nation might be. We have to empower the United Nations which would act like the `Federal Government of the World', and all the nations would be like the `Independent States', with their own language, culture, traditions, and police force -but, no standing military forces. We have to think about single `World Currency System'. No more immigration restrictions and visas. People should be allowed to move freely in the free world contributing to the world economics for the development of the world as an entity.
From our common parental root `Adam & Eve' we are now beginning to realize once again that we are `one world, one humanity'. As the Holy Qur'an declares,"And mankind is naught but a single nation"(Holy Qur'an 2:213).
Vernon , Raymond & Spar , Debora L. Beyond Globalism: Remaking American Foreign Economic Policy , The Free Press 1989.
Tempel , Gudrun The Chairman as God , Anthony Blond Ltd. 1970.
Railroad : USA vs. Lyndon LaRouche, et al. , Commission to Investigate Human Rights Violations, Washington, D.C. 1989.
Nyrop , Richard F. Area Handbook for Bungladesh , U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
Brown , Norman W. The United States and India, Pakistan, Bungladesh , Harvard University Press 1972.
" Tiny SBA Loans Planned To Put Poor in Business " Wall Street Journal, December 14, 1990.
" Economists Start To Fret Again About Population " New York Times, December 18, 1990.
" Boom & Doom " Daily News, April 22, 1990.
The Holy Qur'an (Abdullah Yusuf Ali's english translation).
End of "Towards Globalism."